Ко входуБиблиотека Якова КротоваПомощь
 

Ирвин Ялом

ЭКЗИСТЕНЦИАЛЬНАЯ ПСИХОТЕРАПИЯ

К оглавлению

Примечания

 

 

К главе 1

 

 

1. J. Breuer and S. Freud, Studies on Hysteria, vol. II in The Standard Edition of the Complete Works of Slgmund Freud, 24 vols., ed. James Strachey (London: Hogarth Press. 1955, originally published 1895), pp. 135—83.

 

 

2. Ibid., p. 158.

 

 

3. В. Spinoza, cited by M. de Unamuno, The Tragic Sense of Life, trans. J. E. Flitch (New York: Dover, 1954), p. 6.

 

 

4. A. Freud, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (New York. International Universities Press, 1946).

 

 

5. H. Sullivan, The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry (New York: W W Norton, 1953).

 

 

6. O. Rank, Will Therapy and Truth and Reality (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1954), p. 121.

 

 

7. A. Malraux, cited in P. Lomas, True and False Experience (New York: Taplinger, 1973), p. 8.

 

 

8. Т. Hardy, “In Tenebris”, Collected Poems of Thomas Hardy (New York: Macmillan, 1926), p. 154.

 

 

9. Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. III (New York: Macrnillan and Free Press, 1967), p. 147.

 

 

10. S. Kierkegaard, “How Johannes Climacus Became an Author,” in A Kierkegaard Anthology. ed. R. Bretall (Princeton, N..J.: Princeton University Press, 1946), p. 193.

 

 

11. Ibid.

 

 

12. W. Barrett, What Is Existentialism? (New York: Grove Press, 1954), p 21.

 

 

13. L. Binswanger, “Existential Analysis and Psychotherapy”, in Progress in Psychotherapy, eds. F. Fromm-Reichman and J. Moreno (New York. Grune & Stratton, 1956), p. 196.

 

 

14. R May, E. Angel, and H Ellenberger, Existence (New York: Basic Books, 1958), pp. 3—35.

 

 

15. A. Sutich, American Association of Humanistic Psychology: Progress Report 1962, cited in J. Bugental, “The Third Force in Psychology”, Journal of Humanistic Psychology (1964) 4:19—26.

 

 

16. J. Bugental, “The Third Force”.

 

 

17. F. Perls, Gestalt Therapy Verbatim (New York: Bantam, 1971), p. 1.

 

 

18. S. Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, vol. IV in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1953; originally published 1900), p. 263.

 

 

19. Т. Wilder, cited in Reader’s Digest (January 1978), p. 133.

 

 

20. V. Frankl, oral communication, 1974.

 

 

21. May, Angel, and Ellenberger, Existence, p. 11.

 

 

22. С. Rogers, cited in D. Malan, “The Outcome Problem in Psychotherapy Research”, Archives of General Psychiatry (1973) 29:719—29.

 

 

23. M. Lieberman, I. Yalom, and M. Miles, Encounter Groups: First Facts (New York: Basic Books, 1973).

 

 

24. Ibid., p. 99.

 

 

25. Personal communication, 1978.

 

 

К главе 2

 

 

1. A. Meyer, cited by J. Frank, oral communication, 1979.

 

 

2. Cicero, cited in M. Montaigne, The Complete Essays of Montaigne, trans. Donald Frame (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965), p. 56.

 

 

3. Seneca, cited in Montaigne, Complete Essays, p. 61.

 

 

4. St. Augustine, cited in Montaigne, Complete Essays, p. 63.

 

 

5. Manilius, cited in Montaigne, Complete Essays, p. 65.

 

 

6. Montaigne, Complete Essays, p. 67.

 

 

7. M. Heidegger, Being and Time (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), pp. 210—24.

 

 

8. Ibid., passim.

 

 

9. К. Jaspers, cited in J. Choron, Death and Western Thought (New York: Collier Books 1963), p. 226.

 

 

10. S. Freud, “Thoughts for the Times on War and Death”, vol. XIV in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1957; originally published 1915), p. 291.

 

 

11. Ibid., p. 290.

 

 

12. J. Giraudoux, cited in The Meaning of Death, ed. H. Feifel (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965), p. 124.

 

 

13. Montaigne, Complete Essays, p. 67.

 

 

14. L. Tolstoy, War and Peace (New York: Modern Library, 1931), p. 57.

 

 

15. L. Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych and Other Stories (New York: Signet Classics, 1960).

 

 

16. D. Rosen, “Suicide Survivors,” Western Journal of Medicine (April 1975) 122:289—94.

 

 

17. A. Schmitt, Dialogue with Death (Harrisonburg, Va.: Choice Books, 1976), pp. 55—58.

 

 

18. R. Noyes, “Attitude Changes Following Near-Death Experiences”, Psychiatry, in press.

 

 

19. A. Hussain and S. Tozman, “Psychiatry and Death Row”, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (1978) 39 (3): 183—88.

 

 

20. R. Neuberger, cited in J. Frank in “Nuclear Death—The Challenge of Ethical Religion”, The Ethical Platform (29 April 1962).

 

 

21. D. Spiegel, J. Blum, and I. Yalom, Peer Support for Metastatic Cancer Patients: A Randomized Prospective Outcome Study, in preparation.

 

 

22. К. Chandler, “Three Processes of Dying and the Behavioral Effects”, Journal of Consulting Psychology (1965) 29:296—301; D. Cappon, “The Dying”, Psychiatric Quarterly (1959) 33:466—89; A. Weisman and T. Hackett, “Predilection to Death”, Psychosomatic Medicine (1961) 23:232—56; and E. Kubler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillan, 1969).

 

 

23. К. Weers, manuscript in preparation.

 

 

24. Schmitt, Dialogue with Death, p. 54.

 

 

25. R. Lifton, “The Sense of Immortality: On Death and the Continuity of Life”, Explorations in Psychohistory, eds. R. Lifton and E. Olson (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974), pp. 271—288.

 

 

26. J. Diggory and D. Rothman, “Values Destroyed by Death”, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (1961) 63(1): 205—10.

 

 

27. J. Choron, Modern Man and Mortality (New York: Macmillan, 1964), p. 44.

 

 

28. R. Kastenbaum and R. Aisenberg, Psychology of Death (New York: Springer, 1972), p. 44.

 

 

29. S. Kierkegaard, The Concept of Dread (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1957), p. 55.

 

 

30. R. May, The Meaning of Anxiety, rev. ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977), p. 207.

 

 

31. S. Freud, “Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety”, vol. XX in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1959; originally published 1926), p. 166.

 

 

32. Kierkegaard, Concept of Dread, p. 55.

 

 

33. May, Meaning of Anxiety, p. 207.

 

 

34. Heidegger, Being and Time, p. 223.

 

 

35. A. Sharp, A Green Tree in Geddes (New York. Walker, 1968).

 

 

36. R. Skoog, cited in J. Meyer, Death and Neurosis (New York: International Universities Press, 1975), p. 47.

 

 

37. E. Strauss, cited in. E. Weigert, “Loneliness and Trust—Basic Factors of Human Existence”, Psychiatry (1960) 23:121—30.

 

 

38. W. Schwidder, cited in J. Meyer, Death and Neurosis (New York: International Universities Press, 1975), p. 54.

 

 

39. H. Lazarus and J. Kostan, “Psychogenic Hyperventilation and Death Anxiety”, Psychosomatics (1969) 10:14—22.

 

 

40. D. Friedman, “Death Anxiety and the Primal Scene”, Psychoanalytic Review (1961) 48:108—18.

 

 

41. V. Kral, “Psychiatric Observations under Severe Chronic Stress”, American Journal of Psychiatry (1951) 108:185—92.

 

 

42. Ibid., J. Meyer, Death and Neurosis, p. 58; and A. Heveroch, cited in J. Meyer, Death and Neurosis, p. 58.

 

 

43. M. Roth, “The Phobic Anxiety-Depersonalization Syndrome and Some General Aetiological Problems in Psychiatry”, Journal of Neuropsychiatry (1959) 1:293—306.

 

 

44. R. Kastenbaum and R. Aisenberg, Psychology of Death.

 

 

45. D. Lester, “Experimental and Correlational Studies of Fear of Death”, Psychological Bulletin (1967) 64(1): 27—36; and D. Templer and C. Ruff, “Death Anxiety Scale Means, Standard Deviations, and Embedding”, Psychological Reports (1971) 29:173—174.

 

 

46. P. Livingston and C. Zimet, “Death Anxiety, Authoritarianism and Choice of Speciality in Medical Students”, Journal of Neurological and Mental Disorders (1965) 140:222—230.

 

 

47. W. Swenson, “Attitudes toward Death in an Aged Population”, Journal of Gerontology (1961) 16(l): 49—52; D. Martin and L. Wrightsman, “The Relationship between Religious Behavior and Concern about Death,” Journal of Social Psychology (1865) 65:317—23; and D. Templer, “Death Anxiety in Religiously Very Involved Persons”, Psychological Reports (1972) 31:361—367.

 

 

48. N. Iammarino, “Relationship between Death Anxiety and Demographic Variables”, Psychological Reports (1975) 37:262.

 

 

49. Iammarino, “Death Anxiety and Demographic Variables”; Swenson, “Attitudes toward Death”; A. Christ, “Attitudes toward Death among a Group of Acute Geriatric Psychiatric Patients”, Journal of Gerontology (1961) 16(1)156—59; and P. Rhudick and A. Dibner, “Age, Personality, and Health Correlates of Death Concerns in Normal Aged Individuals”, Journal of Gerontology (1961) 16(l):44—49.

 

 

50. M. Lieberman and A. Coplan, “Distance from Death as a Variable in the Study of Aging”, Developmental Psychology (1970) 2:71—84.

 

 

51. M. Means, “Fears of One Thousand College Women”, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (1936) 31:291—311.

 

 

52. W. Middleton, “Some Reactions toward Death among College Students”, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (1936) 3:165—173.

 

 

53. Templer and Ruff, “Death Anxiety Scale Means”; Iammarino, “Death Anxiety and Demographic Variables”; and D. Templer, C. Ruff, and C. Franks, “Death Anxiety; Age, Sex, and Parental Resemblance in Disease Populations”, Developmental Psychology (1971) 4:108.

 

 

54. P. Thauberger, “The Avoidance of Ontological Confrontation”, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Saskatchewan, 1974.

 

 

55. C. Stacey and К. Markin, “The Attitudes of College Students and Penitentiary Inmates toward Death and a Future Life”, Psychiatric Quarterly, supplement (1952) 26:27—32.

 

 

56. D. Templer, “Death Anxiety as Related to Depression and Health of Retired Persons,” Journal of Gerontology, (1971) 26:521—523.

 

 

57. Swenson, “Attitudes toward Death”; J. Munnichs, Old Age and Finitude (Basel and New York: Karger, 1966); and S. Shrut, “Attitude toward Old Age to Death”, Mental Hygiene (1958) 42:259—263.

 

 

58. Munnichs, Old Age and Finitude; A. Christ, “Attitude toward Death among a Group of Acute Geriatric Psychiatric Patients”, Journal of Gerontology (1961) 16:56—59; and Kastenbaum and Aisenberg, Psychology of Death, p. 83.

 

 

59. Kastenbaum and Aisenberg, Psychology of Death, p. 107

 

 

60. C. Stacy and M. Reichers, “Attitudes toward Death and Future Life among Normal and Subnormal Adolescent Girls”, Exceptional Children (1959) 20:259—262.

 

 

61. A. Maurer, “Adolescent Attitudes toward Death”, Journal of Genetic Psychology (1964) 105:79—80.

 

 

62. H. Feifel and A. Branscomb, “Who’s Afraid of Death?” Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1973) 81(3):282—88; and H. Feifel and L. Herman, “Fear of Death in the Mentally III”, Psychological Reports (1973) 33:931—938.

 

 

63. Feifel and Branscomb, “Who’s Afraid of Death?”

 

 

64. W. Meissner, “Affective Response to Psychoanalytic Death Symbols”, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (1958) 56:295—299.

 

 

65. К.G. Magni, “Reactions to Death Stimuli among Theology Students”, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion (Fall 1970) 9(3):247—48.

 

 

66. Kastenberg and Aisenberg, Psychology of Death, p. 95.

 

 

67. Rhudick and Dibner, “Age, Personality, and Health Correlates”.

 

 

68. Shrut, “Attitude toward Old Age”.

 

 

69. Swenson, “Attitudes toward Death”.

 

 

70. Templer, “Death Anxiety”.

 

 

71. N. Kogan and R. Shelton, “Beliefs about ‘Old People”, Journal of Genetic Psychology (1962) 100:93—111.

 

 

72. M. Kramer, С. Winget, and R. Whitman, “A City Dreams: A Survey Approach to Normative Dream Content”, American Journal of Psychiatry (1971) 127:86—92.

 

 

73. H. Cason, “The Nightmare Dream”, Psychology Monographs (1935) 209:46.

 

 

74. M. Feldman and M. Hersen, “Attitudes toward Death in Nightmare Subjects”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1967) 72:421—425; and D. Lester, “The Fear of Death of Those Who Have Nightmares”, Journal of Psychology (1968) 69:245—47.

 

 

75. P. Handal and J. Rychlak, “Curvilinearity between Dream Content and Death Anxiety and the Relationship of Death Anxiety to Repression-Sensitivity”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1971) 77:11—16.

 

 

76. W. Bromberg and P. Schilder, “The Attitudes of Psychoneurotics toward Death”, Psychoanalyltic Review (1936) 23:1—28.

 

 

77. С. Parks, “The First Year of Bereavement,” Psychiatry (1970) 33:444—67.

 

 

78. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels, trans. A. Heidel (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946), pp. 63, 64.

 

 

79. A. Witt, personal communication, September 1978.

 

 

80. Personal communication from a friend.

 

 

81. Freud, “Thoughts for the Times”, vol. XIV, Standard Edition, p. 298.

 

 

82. J. Breuer and S. Freud, Studies on Hysteria, vol. II in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1955; originally published in 1895).

 

 

83. Ibid., p. 9.

 

 

84. Ibid., p. 7.

 

 

85. Ibid., p. xxxi.

 

 

86. Ibid., p. 14.

 

 

87. Ibid., p. 34.

 

 

88. Ibid., p. 117.

 

 

89. Ibid., p. 63.

 

 

90. Ibid., p. 131.

 

 

91. Ibid., p. 137.

 

 

92. Ibid., p. 157.

 

 

93. S. Freud, Origins of Psychoanalysis, ed. by M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, and E. Kris (New York: Basic Books, 1954).

 

 

94. S. Freud, “Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety”, vol. XX, Standard Edition, p. 166.

 

 

95. A. Compton, “Psychoanalytic Theories of Anxiety,” Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association (1972) 20(2):341—94.

 

 

96. S. Freud, Studies on Hysteria, vol. II, in Standard Edition, (London: Hogarth Press, 1955; originally published 1895), p. 33.

 

 

97. Ibid., p. 40.

 

 

98. Freud, “Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety”, vol. XX, Standard Edition, p. 130.

 

 

99. M. Klein, “A Contribution of the Theory of Anxiety and Guilt”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1948) 29:114—23.

 

 

100. O. Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of the Psychoneuroses (New York: Norton, 1945).

 

 

101. R. Waelder, Basic Theory of Psychoanalysis (New York: International Universities Press, 1960).

 

 

102. R. Greenson, The Technique and Practice of Psychoanalysis (New York: International Universities Press, 1967).

 

 

103. S. Freud, The Ego and the Id. vol. XIX, Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1961; originally published in 1923), p. 57.

 

 

104. Ibid., p. 58ff.

 

 

105. S. Freud, Beyond the Pleasure Principle, vol. XVIII in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1955; originally published 1920), pp. 1—64.

 

 

106. Freud, “Thoughts for the Times”, vol. XIV, Standard Edition, p. 299.

 

 

107. E. Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, vol. I (New York: Basic Books, 1953), p. 40.

 

 

108. Ibid., p. 41.

 

 

109. Ibid., p. 45.

 

 

110. N. Brown, Life Against Death (New York: Vintage Books, 1959).

 

 

111. S. Freud, “Thoughts for the Times”, vol. XIV in Standard Edition, pp. 273—300.

 

 

112. S. Freud, “The Theme of Three Caskets”, vol. XII in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1966; originally published 1913), pp. 289—302.

 

 

113. E. Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, vols. I, II, III (New York: Basic Books, 1953,1955,1957).

 

 

114. I. Stone, Passions of the Mind (New York: Doubleday, 1971).

 

 

115. For example, J. Wortis, Fragments of an Analysis with Freud (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1954).

 

 

116. For example, S. Freud, Origins of Psychoanalysis, eds. M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, and E. Kris (New York: Basic Books, 1954); H. Abraham and E. Freud, eds., A Psycho-Analytic Dialogue: The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Karl Abraham 1907—1926, trans. B. Marsa and C. Abraham (New York: Basic Books; London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1965); E. Freud and H. Meng, eds., Psycho-Analysis and Faith: The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Oskar Pfister, trans. E. Mosbacher (New York: Basic Books; London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1963); and E. Pfeiffer, ed., Sigmund Freud and Lou Andreas-Salome: Letters, trans. William and Elaine Robson-Scott (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1972.)

 

 

117. Jones, vol. I, p. 4.

 

 

118. Ibid., p. 20.

 

 

119. Ibid.

 

 

120. Ibid., p. xii.

 

 

121. Ibid., p. 78.

 

 

122. Freud, Origins of Psychoanalysis, p. 217.

 

 

123. Ibid., p. 129.

 

 

К главе 3

 

 

1. S. Anthony, The Discovery of Death in Childhood and After (New York: Basic Books, 1972).

 

 

2. E. Becker, The Denial of Death (New York: Free Press, 1973), p. 36.

 

 

3. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 155.

 

 

4. Ibid., pp. 155—56.

 

 

5. Ibid., p. 157.

 

 

6. F. Moellenkoff, “Ideas of Children about Death”, Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic (1939)3:148—56.

 

 

7. E. Erikson, Childhood and Society (New York: W. W. Norton, 1963).

 

 

8. Anthony, Discovery of Death, pp. 78ff.

 

 

9. R. Kastenbaum & R. Aisenberg, Psychology of Death (New York: Springer, 1972), p. 9.

 

 

10. S. Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, vol. IV in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1964; originally published 1900), pp. 254—55.

 

 

11. R. Lapouse and M. Monk, “Fears and Worries in a Representative Sample of Children”, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1959) 29:803—18.

 

 

12. S. Harrison, С. Davenport, and J. McDermott, “Children’s Reactions to Bereavement,” Archives of General Psychiatry (1967) 17:593—97.

 

 

13. Anthony, Discovery of Death: M. Nagy, “The Child’s View of Death”, Journal of Genetic Psychology, (1948) 73:3—27; P. Schilder & D. Wechsler, “The Attitudes of Children toward Death,” Journal of Genetic Psychology (1934) 45:406—51; G. Koocher, “Talking with Children about Death”, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1974) 44:404—11; M. Macintire, C. Angle, and L. Struempler, “The Concept of Death in Mid-Western Children and Youth”, American Journal of Disease of Children (1972) 123:527—32.

 

 

14. Nagy, “Child’s View of Death”.

 

 

15. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 47—77.

 

 

16. Schilder and Wechsler, “Attitudes of Children”.

 

 

17. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 158.

 

 

18. E. Furman, A Child’s Parent Dies (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994), p. 5.

 

 

19. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 255.

 

 

20. J. Sully, cited in Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 269.

 

 

21. J. Piaget, cited in Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 56.

 

 

22. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 59.

 

 

23. Kastenbaum and Aisenberg, Psychology of Death, p. 9.

 

 

24. Kastenbaum and Aisenberg, Psychology of Death, p. 12f.

 

 

25. S. Brant, cited in Kastenbaum and Aisenberg, Psychology of Death, p. 14.

 

 

26. Kastenbaum and Aisenberg, Psychology of Death, p. 14.

 

 

27. G. Rochlin., Griefs and Discontents: The Focus of Change (Boston: Little, Brown, 1965), p. 67.

 

 

28. G. Rochlin, “How Younger Children View Death and Themselves”, in Explaining Death to Children”, ed. E. Grollman (New York: Beacon Press, 1967).

 

 

29. M. Scheler, cited in J. Choron, Death and Western Thought (New York: Collier Books, 1963), p. 17.

 

 

30. Rochlin, “How Younger Children”, p. 56.

 

 

31. Ibid., pp. 84—85.

 

 

32. M. Klein, “A Contribution to the Theory of Anxiety and Guilt”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1948) 29:114—23.

 

 

33. К. Eissler, The Psychiatrist and the Dying Patient (New York: International Universities Press, 1959), pp. 57—58.

 

 

34. A. Freud, “Discussion of John Bowlby’s Paper”, Psychoanalytic Study of the Child (1960) 15:53—62.

 

 

35. Furman, A Child’s Parent Dies, p. 51.

 

 

36. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 139.

 

 

37. Ibid., pp. 157—58.

 

 

38. A. Maurer, “Maturation of Concepts of Death”, British Journal of Medical Psychology (1964) 39:35—41.

 

 

39. M. Stern, “Pavor Nocturnis,” International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1951) 32:302.

 

 

40. R. White, “Motivation Reconsidered: The Concept of Competence”, Psychological Review (1959) 66:297—333.

 

 

41. Maurer, “Maturation”.

 

 

42. Kastenbaum and Aisenberg, Psychology of Death, p. 29.

 

 

43. Maurer, “Maturation”.

 

 

44. MacIntire, Angle, and Struempler, “The Concept of Death”.

 

 

45. I. Alexander and A. Adierstein, “Affective Responses to the Concept of Death in a Population of Children and Early Adolescents”, Journal of Genetic Psychology (1958) 93:167—77.

 

 

46. Nagy, “Child’s View of Death”.

 

 

47. S. Hostler, “The Development of the Child’s Concept of Death,” in The Child and Death, ed. O. J. Sahler (St. Louis, Mo.: C. V. Mosby, 1978), p. 9.

 

 

48. E. Jaques, “Death and the Mid-Life Crisis”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1968) 46:502—13.

 

 

49. J. Masserman, The Practice of Dynamic Psychiatry (Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders, 1955), p. 467.

 

 

50. V. Frankl, oral communication, 1974.

 

 

51. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 154.

 

 

52. Ibid., p. 155.

 

 

53. Schilder and Wechsler, “Attitudes of Children”.

 

 

54. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 155.

 

 

55. Ibid., p. 257.

 

 

56. Schilder and Wechsler, “Attitudes of Children”.

 

 

57. Nagy, “Child’s View of Death”.

 

 

58. Koocher, “Talking with Children”.

 

 

59. I. Opie, The Love and Language of School Children (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959).

 

 

60. Maurer, “Maturation”.

 

 

61. J. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss, vol. II: Separation (New York: Basic Books, 1973).

 

 

62. A. Jersild and F. Holmes, Children’s Fears (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1935); and A. Jersild, “Studies of Children’s Fears,” in Child Behavior and Development, eds., R. Barker, J. Kounin, and H, Wright (New York, London: McGraw-Hill, 1943).

 

 

63. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss, pp. 105—18.

 

 

64. R. May, The Meaning of Anxiety (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977) pp. 105—9.

 

 

65. Ibid., pp. 107—8

 

 

66. Klein, “A Contribution”; and D. Winnicott, The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment (New Yolk: International Universities Press, 1965), p. 41.

 

 

67. A. Freud, “Discussion”.

 

 

68. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 161.

 

 

69. С. Wahl, “The Fear of Death”, in The Meaning of Death, ed. H. Feifel (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959), pp. 214—23.

 

 

70. S. Freud, An Outline of Psycho-Analysis, vol. XXIII, in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1964; originally published 1940), p. 185.

 

 

71. S. Rosenzweig, and D. Bray, “Sibling Death in Anamneses of Schizophrenic Patients,” Psychoanalytic Review (1942) 49:71—92; and S. Rosenzweig, “Sibling Death as a Psychological Experience with Special Reference to Schizophrenia,” Psychoanalytic Review (1943) 30:177—86.

 

 

72. Rosensweig, “Sibling Death”.

 

 

73. Ibid.

 

 

74. H. Searles, “Schizophrenia and the Inevitability of Death”, Psychiatric Quarterly (1961) 35:631—55.

 

 

75. J. Hilgard, M. Newman, and F. Fisk, “Strength of Adult Ego Following Childhood Bereavement”, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1960) 30:788—98.

 

 

76. Furman, A Child’s Parent Dies; Bowlby, Attachment and Loss; R. Furman, “Death and the Young Child”, Psychoanalytic Study of the Child (1964) 29:321—33; and R. Zeligs, Children’s Experience with Death (Springfield, III.: C. C. Thomas, 1974), pp. 1—49.

 

 

77. Maurer, “Maturation”.

 

 

78. Macintire, Angle, and Struempler, “The Concept of Death”; F. Brown, “Depression and Childhood Bereavement”, Journal of Mental Science (1961) 107:754—77; 1. Gregory, “Studies in Parental Deprivation in Psychiatric Patients”, American Journal of Psychiatry (1958) 115:432—42; G. Pollack, “Childhood Parent and Sibling Loss in Adult Patients”, Archives of General Psychiatry (October 1962) 7:295—305; and H. Barry and E. Lindeman, “Critical Ages for Maternal Bereavement in Psychoneuroses”, Psychosomatic Medicine (1960) 22:166—81.

 

 

79. J. Hilgard and M. Newman, “Evidence for Functional Genesis in Mental Illness: Schizophrenia, Depressive Psychoses and Psychoneurosis”, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (1961) 132:3—6.

 

 

80. M. Breckenridge and E. Vincent, Child Development, ed. W. B. Saunders, 4th ed. (Philadelphia, Pa.: W. B. Saunders 1960), p. 138.

 

 

81. E. Kubler-Ross, address at Stanford Medical School, May 1978.

 

 

82. S. Ferenezi, cited in Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 157.

 

 

83. Anthony, Discovery of Death, p. 159.

 

 

84. J. Bruner, cited in H. Galen, “A Matter of Life and Death”, Young Children (August 1972) 27:351—56.

 

 

85. Galen, “A Matter of Life”.

 

 

86. Rochlin, “How Younger Children”, p. 63.

 

 

К главе 4

 

 

1. S. Kierkegaard, cited in E. Becker, The Denial of Death (New York: Free Press, 1973), p. 70.

 

 

2. O. Rank, Will Therapy and Truth and Reality (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945), p. 126.

 

 

3. P. Tillich, The Courage to Be (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1952), p. 66.

 

 

4. Becker, Denial of Death, p. 66.

 

 

5. R. Lifton, “The Sense of Immortality: On Death and the Continuity of Life,” in Explorations of Psychohistory, eds. R. Lifton and E. Olson (New York: Simon & Schueter, 1974), p. 282

 

 

6. L. Loesser and T. Bry, “The Role of Death Fears in the Etiology of Phobic Anxiety”, International Journal of Group Psychotherapy (1960) 10:287—97.

 

 

7. Rank, Will Therapy, p. 124.

 

 

8. E. Fromm, Escape from Freedom (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1941), p. 6.

 

 

9. L. Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych and Other Stories (New York: Signet Classics 1960) pp. 131—32.

 

 

10. R. Frost, In the Clearing (New York; Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1962), p. 39.

 

 

11. N. Kazantzakis, Report to Greco, trans. P. A. Bien (New York: Simon & Schuster 1965), p. 457.

 

 

12. N. Kazantzakis, The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel, trans. Kimon Friar (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1958).

 

 

13. С. Baker, Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story (New York: Charles Scribner, 1969), p. 5.

 

 

14. E. Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea (New York: Charles Scribner, 1961).

 

 

15. С. Wahl, “Suicide as a Magical Act”, Bulletin of Menninger Clinic, (May 1957) 21:91—98.

 

 

16. F. Kluckholm and F. Stroedbeck, Variations in Value Orientations (New York: Harper & Row, 1961), p. 15.

 

 

17. J. M. Keynes, cited in Norman Brown, Life Against Death (New York: Vintage Books, 1959), p. 107.

 

 

18. L. Tolstoy, Anna Karenina (New York: Modern Library, 1950), p. 168.

 

 

19. H. Feifel, Taboo Topics, ed. Norman Forberow (New York: Atherton Press, 1963), p. 15.

 

 

20. Rank, Wilt Therapy, p. 130.

 

 

21. H. Ibsen, cited in Rank, Will Therapy, p. 131.

 

 

22. S. Freud, Some Character Types Met with in Psychoanalytic Work, vol. XIV in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1957; originally published in 1916), pp. 316—31.

 

 

23. Rank, Will Therapy, p. 119.

 

 

24. A. Maslow, The Further Reaches of Human Nature (New York: Viking, 1971), p. 35.

 

 

25. Becker, Denial of Death, pp. 35—39.

 

 

26. Fromm, Escape from Freedom. (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1941), pp. 174—79.

 

 

27. J. Masserman, The Practice of Dynamic Psychiatry (London: W. B. Saunders, 1955), pp. 476—81.

 

 

28. L. Tolstoy, War and Peace (New York: Modern Library, 1931), p. 231.

 

 

29. S. Kierkegaard, cited in Rollo May, The Meaning of Anxiety, rev. ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977), p. 38.

 

 

30. M. Heidegger, Being and Time (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 105.

 

 

31. S. Arieti, “Psychotherapy of Severe Depression”, American Journal of Psychiatry (1977), 134(8):864—68.

 

 

32. Ibid.

 

 

33. I. Yalom and G. Elkins, Everyday Gets a Little Closer (New York: Basic Books, 1974).

 

 

34. O. Rank, Will Therapy, pp. 119—34.

 

 

35. W. Tietz, “School Phobia and the Fear of Death”, Mental Hygiene (1970) 54:565—68.

 

 

36. Oral communication. May 1979.

 

 

37. E. Greenberger, “Fantasies of Women Confronting Death”, Journal of Consulting Psychology (1965) 29:252—60.

 

 

38. M. Mahler, F. Pine, and A. Bergman, The Psychological Birth of the Infant (New York: Basic Books, 1975).

 

 

39. Rank, Will Therapy, p. 126.

 

 

40. S. Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling and the Sickness unto Death (New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1953), pp. 182—200.

 

 

41. Tillich, The Courage to Be, p. 52.

 

 

42. Rank, Will Therapy, p. 149.

 

 

43. H. Searles, “Schizophrenia and the Inevitability of Death”, Psychiatric Quarterly (1961) 35:631—55.

 

 

44. Ibid.

 

 

45. Ibid.

 

 

46. Ibid.

 

 

47. Ibid.

 

 

48. N. Brown, Life Against Death (New York: Vintage Books, 1959), p. 107.

 

 

49. H. Within, Psychological Differentiation (New York: John Wiley, 1962).

 

 

50. H. Witkin, “Psychological Differentiation and Forms of Pathology”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1965) 70(5):317—36.

 

 

51. J. Rotter, “Generalized Expectancies for Internal vs. External Control of Reinforcement”, Psychological Monographs (1966) 80 (1, whole #609).

 

 

52. E. Phares, Locus of Control in Personality (Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press, 1976).

 

 

53. J. Rotter, “Some Implications of Social Learning Theory for the Prediction of Goal Directed Behavior from Testing Procedures”, Psychology Review (1960) 67:301—16.

 

 

54, W. Mischel, R. Zeiss, and A. Zeiss, “Internal-External Control and Persistence”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1974) 29:265—78.

 

 

55. Phares, Locus of Control, p. 7.

 

 

56. Ibid., pp. 144—56.

 

 

57. Ibid., p. 149.

 

 

58. P. Duz, “Comparison of the Effects of Behaviorally Oriented Action and Psycho-therapy Reeducation of Intraversion-Extraversion, Emotionality, and Internal-External Control”, Journal of Counseling Psychology (1970) 17:567—72.

 

 

59. Witkin, “Psychological Differentiation”, Rotter, “Some Implications”, and Phares, Locus of Control.

 

 

60. R. Ryckman and M. Sherman, “Relationship between Self Esteem and Internal-External Locus of Control”, Psychological Reports (1973) 32:1106; and В. Fish and S. Karabenick, “Relationship between Self Esteem and Locus of Control”, Psychological Reports (1971) 29:784.

 

 

61. D. Kilpatrick, W. Dubin, and D. Marcotte, “Personality, Stress of the Medical Edu­cation Process and Changes in Affective Mood State”, Psychology Reports (1974) 3:1215—23.

 

 

62. F. Melges and A. Weisz, “The Personal Future and Suicidal Ideation”, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (1971) 153:244—50; and H. Lefcourt, Locus of Control (Hilisdale, N.J.: Lawrence Eribaum, 1976), p. 148.

 

 

63. J. Shybutt, “Time Perspective, Internal vs. External Control and Severity of Psychological Disturbance”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1968) 24:312—15; and С. Smith, M. Peyer, and M. Distefano, “Internal-External Control and Severity Emotional Impairment,” Journal of Clinical Psychology (1971) 27:449—50.

 

 

64. M. Harrow and A. Ferrante, “Locus of Control in Psychiatric Patients,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1969) 33:582—89; and R. Cromwell, “Description of Parental Behavior in Schizophrenic and Normal Subjects”, Journal of Personality (1961) 29:363—79.

 

 

65. С. Fersten, “A Functional Analysis of Depression”, American Psychologist (1973) 28:857—70; P. Lewinsohn, cited in Lefcourt, Aspects of Depression; W. Miller and M. Seligman, “Depression and the Perception of Reinforcement”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1973) 82:62—73; and L. Abramson and H. Sackeim, “A Paradox in Depression: Uncontrollability and Self-Blame”, Psychology Bulletin (1977) 84:838—52.

 

 

66. A. Tolor and M. Reznikoff, “Relation between Insight, Repression-Sensitization, Internal-External Control and Death Anxiety”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1967) 72:426—31.

 

 

67. A. Berman and J. Hays, “Relation between Death Anxiety, Belief in Afterlife, and Locus of Control”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1973) 41:318.

 

 

К главе 5

 

 

1. N. Kazantzakis, The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel, trans. Kimon Friar (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1958).

 

 

2. S. Kierkegaard, cited in R. May, The Meaning of Anxiety, rev. ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977), p. 37.

 

 

3. M. Heidegger, Being and Time (New York: Harper &: Row, 1962), p. 294.

 

 

4. F. Nietzsche, The Gay Science, trans. W. Kaufman (New York: Random House, Vintage, 1974), p. 37.

 

 

5. M. Montaigne, The Complete Essays of Montaigne, trans. D. Frame (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1945), p. 65.

 

 

6. G. Santayana, cited in K. Fisher, “Ultimate Goals in Psychotherapy”, Journal of Existentialism (Winter 1966—67) 7:215—32.

 

 

7. R. Assagioli, Psychosynthesis (New York: Viking Press, 1971), p. 116.

 

 

8. P. Landsburg, cited in J. Choron, Death and Western Thought (New York: Collier Books, 1963), p. 16.

 

 

9. J. Donne, Complete Poetry and Selected Prose (New York: Modern Library, 1952) p 332.

 

 

10. R. Gardner, “The Guilt Reaction of Parents of Children with Severe Physical Disease”, American Journal of Psychiatry (1969), 126:82—90.

 

 

11. Heidegger, Being and Time, p. 105.

 

 

12. S. Golburgh and C. Rotman, “The Terror of Life: A Latent Adolescent Nightmare”, Adolescence (1973), 8:569—74.

 

 

13. E. Jaques, “Death and the Mid-Life Crisis”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1965), 46:502—513.

 

 

14. С. Jung, cited in D. Levinson, The Seasons of a Man’s Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), p. 4.

 

 

15. D. Krantz, Radical Career Change: Life Beyond Work (New York: Free Press, 1978).

 

 

16. R. Noyes, “Attitude Changes Following Near-Death Experiences,” Psychiatry, in press.

 

 

17. Montaigne, Complete Essays, p. 62.

 

 

18. A. Kurland, et al. “Psychedelic Therapy Utilizing LSD in the Treatment of the Alcoholic Patient”, American Journal of Psychiatry (1967) 123(10):1202—9.

 

 

19. I. Silbermann, The Psychical Experience during the Shocks in Shock-Therapy”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1940) 21:179—200.

 

 

20. P. Koestenbaum, Is There an Answer to Death? (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976), pp. 31—41,65—74.

 

 

21. E. Aronson, oral communication, 1977.

 

 

22. J. Laube, “Death and Dying Workshop for Nurses: Its Effects on Their Death Anxiety Level”, International Journal of Nursing Students (1977) 14:111—120; P. Murray, “Death Education and Its Effects on the Death Anxiety Level of Nurses”, Psychological Reports (1974) 35:1250; J. Bugental, “Confronting the Existential Meaning of My Death Through Group Exercises”, Interpersonal Development (1973) 4:1948—63; and W. Whelan and W. Warren, “A Death Awareness Workshop: Theory Application and Results”, unpublished manuscript, 1977.

 

 

23. Whelan and Warren, “Death Awareness Workshop”.

 

 

24. J. Fowles, Daniel Martin (Boston: Little, Brown, 1977), p. 177.

 

 

25. I. Yalom, et al. “The Written Summary as a Group Psychotherapy Technique”, Archives of General Psychiatry (1975) 32:605—13.

 

 

26. G. Zilboorg, “Fear of Death”, Psychoanalytic Quarterly (1943) 12:465—75.

 

 

27. S. Freud, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, vol. VII in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1957; originally published, 1905), pp. 125—231.

 

 

28. M. Stern, “Fear of Death and Neurosis”, Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association (May 1966), pp. 3—31.

 

 

29. Dante Alighieri, La Divina Commedia (Florence, Italy: Casa Editrice Nerbini, n. d.); translation by John Freccero, 1980.

 

 

30. Jaques, “Death and the Mid-Life Crisis”.

 

 

31. H. Rosenberg, “The Fear of Death as an Indispensable Factor in Psychotherapy”, American Journal of Psychotherapy (1963) 17:619—30.

 

 

32. J. Breuer and S. Freud, Studies on Hysteria, vol. II in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1964; originally published, 1895), p. 268.

 

 

33. M. Eliade, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1964), p. 43.

 

 

34. Ibid., p. 45.

 

 

35. Stern, “Fear of Death”.

 

 

36.   J. Bugental, The Search for Authenticity (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965), p. 167.

 

 

37. J. Hinton, “The Influence of Previous Personality on Reactions to Having Terminal Cancer”, Omega (1975) 6:95—111.

 

 

38. F. Nietzsche, cited in N. Brown, Life Against Death (New York: Vintage Books, 1959), p. 107.

 

 

39. H. Searles, “Schizophrenia and the Inevitability of Death”, Psychiatric Quarterly (1961) 35:631—55.

 

 

40. Montaigne, Complete Essays, p. 268.

 

 

41. Whelan and Warren, “Death Awareness Workshop”.

 

 

42. D. Kaller, “An Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Program Designed to Reduce Anxiety and Fear about Death and of the Relation of That Program to Sixteen Personal History Variables”, Dissertation Abstracts (May 1975) 35(11):7125-A.

 

 

43. E. Pratt, “A Death Education Laboratory as a Medium for Influencing Feelings Toward Death”, Dissertation Abstracts (1974) 4026(B).

 

 

44. Laube, “Death and Dying Workshop”.

 

 

45. Murray, “Death Education”.

 

 

К главе 6

 

 

1. J. Sartre, Being and Nothingness, trans. Hazel Barnes (New York: Philosophical Library, 1956), p. 633.

 

 

2. J. Sartre, Nausea, trans. Hazel Barnes (New York: New Directions, 1964), pp. 126—130.

 

 

3. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. P. Edwards, vol. IV (New York: Macmillan and Free Press, 1967), p. 308.

 

 

4. J. Russel, “Sartre, Therapy, and Expanding the Concept of Responsibility”, American Journal of Psychoanalysis (1978) 38:259—69.

 

 

5. Sartre, Being and Nothingness, p. 566.

 

 

6. Sartre, cited in D. Follesdal, “Sartre on Freedom”, in Library of Living Philosophers, ed. Paul Schilpp (Evanston: Northwestern University Press), forthcoming.

 

 

7. Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. V, pp. 416—19.

 

 

8. E. Fromm, Escape from Freedom (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1941).

 

 

9. R. Kogod, oral communication, 1974.

 

 

10. V. M. Catch and M. Temerlin, “Belief in Psychic Determinism and the Behavior of the Psychotherapist”, Review of Existential Psychology and Psychiatry (1965) 5:16—35.

 

 

11. M. Mazer, “The Therapeutic Function of the Belief in Will”, Psychiatry (1960) 23:45—52.

 

 

12. F. Perls, cited in J. Russel, “Sartre, Therapy”.

 

 

13. F. Perls and P. Baumgardner, Legacy from Fritz (Palo Alto, Calif.: Science and Behavior Books, 1975), pp. 45—46.

 

 

14. A. Levitsky and F. Perls, “The Rules and Games of Gestalt Therapy”, in Gestalt Therapy Now, ed. J. Fagan and Irma Lee Shepherd (Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books, Inc., 1973), p. 143.

 

 

15. Ibid., p. 98.

 

 

16. F. Perls, Gestalt Therapy Verbatim (New York: Bantam Books, 1969), p. 80.

 

 

17. V. Frankl, The Will to Meaning (Cleveland, O.: New American Library, 1969), pp. 101—7.

 

 

18. J. Haley, Uncommon Therapy: The Psychiatric Techniques of Milton Erickson (New York: W. W. Norton, 1973); and P. Watzlawick, J. Beavin, and D. Jackson, Pragmatics of Human Communication (New York: W. W. Norton, 1967).

 

 

19. Perls and Baumgardner, Legacy from Fritz, p. 117.

 

 

20. F. Perls, Gestalt Therapy Verbatim, p. 79.

 

 

21. Ibid., pp. 69—70.

 

 

22. Perls and Baumgardner, Legacy from Fritz, p. 44.

 

 

23. Ibid., p. 44—45.

 

 

24. Perls, Gestalt Therapy Verbatim, p. 79.

 

 

25. R. Drye, R. Goulding, and M. Goulding, “No Suicide Decision: Patient Monitoring of Suicidal Risk”, American Journal of Psychiatry (1973) 130:171—74.

 

 

26. H. Kaiser, Effective Psychotherapy: The Contribution of Hellmuth Kaiser, ed. L. Fierman (New York: Free Press, 1965).

 

 

27. Ibid.. p. 135.

 

 

28. Ibid., p. 126.

 

 

29. Ibid., p. 129.

 

 

30. H. Kaiser, “The Problem of Responsibility in Psychotherapy”, Psychiatry (1955) 18:205—11.

 

 

31. Kaiser, Effective Psychotherapy: The Contribution of Hellmuth Kaiser, pp. 159ff.

 

 

32. Ibid., pp. 172—202.

 

 

33. W. Dyer, Your Erroneous Zones (New York: Avon Books, 1977).

 

 

34. Ibid., p. 14.

 

 

35. W. Dyer, Pulling Your Own Strings (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1978).

 

 

36. G. Weinberg, Self-Creation (New York: Avon Books, 1978).

 

 

37. Dyer, Your Erroneous Zones, pp. 194—196.

 

 

38. Ibid,, pp. 214—215.

 

 

39. A. Lazarus and A. Fay, I Can If I Want To (New York: William Morrow, 1975).

 

 

40. N. Lande, Mindstyles Lifestyles (Los Angeles: Price, Stern, Sloan, 1976), pp. 135—46.

 

 

41. A. Bry, EST—60 Hours That Transform Your Life (New York: Harper & Row, 1976), pp. 49—50.

 

 

42. Ibid., p. 53.

 

 

43. L. Rhinehart, The Book of EST (New York: Holt, Rinehart &. Winston, 1976), pp. 142—44.

 

 

44. Bry, EST, p. 59.

 

 

45. Rhinehart, The Book of EST, pp. 144—45.

 

 

46. Bry, EST. p. 61.

 

 

47. Ibid., pp. 71.

 

 

48. Ibid., p. 72—73.

 

 

49. Ibid., p. 73.

 

 

50. Ibid., p. 72.

 

 

51. Ibid., p. 76.

 

 

52. Ibid., pp. 72—73.

 

 

53. Ibid., p. 128.

 

 

54. Ibid., p. 129.

 

 

55. S. Fenwick, Getting It: The Psychology of EST (New York: J. P. Lippincott., 1976), p. 181.

 

 

56. R. Ryckman and M. Sherman, “Relationship between Self-Esteem and Internal-External Locus of Control”, Psychological Report (1973) 32:1106; and В. Fish and S. Karabenich, “Relationships between Self-Esteem and Locus of Control”, Psychological Reports (1971) 29:784—87.

 

 

57. D. Kilpatrick, W. Dubin, and D. Marcotte, “Personality, Stress of the Medical Education Process and Changes in Affect Mood State”, Psychological Reports (1974) 3:1215—23.

 

 

58. F. Melgas and A. Weisz, “The Personal Future and Suicidal Ideation”, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (1971) 153:244—50; and H. Lefcourt, Locus of Control (New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum 1976), p. 148.

 

 

59. J. Rotter, “Generalized Expectancies for Internal vs. External Control of Reinforcement”, Psychological Monographs (1966) 80(1, whole #609) 7, 61, 166.

 

 

60. J. Easterbrook, The Determinants of Free Will (New York; Academic Press, 1978), p. 26.

 

 

61. M. Harrow and A. Ferrante, “Locus of Control in Psychiatric Patients”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1969) 33:582—89; and R. Cromwell, “Description of Parental Behavior in Schizophrenic and Normal Subjects”, Journal of Personality (1961) 29:363—79.

 

 

62. J. Shybutt, “Time Perspective, Internal vs. External Control and Severity of Psychological Disturbance”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1968) 24:312—15; and С. Smith, M. Pryor, and M. Distefano, “Internal-External Control and Severity Emotional Impairment”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1971) 27:449—50.

 

 

63. С. Fersten, “A Functional Analysis of Depression”, American Psychologist (1973) 28:857—70; P. Lewinsohn, cited in Lefcourt, Locus of Control; W. Miller and M. Seligman, “Depression and the Perception of Reinforcement”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1973) 82:62—73; and L. Abramson and H. Sackeim, “A Paradox in Depression: Uncontrollability and Self-Blame”, Psychological Bulletin (1977) 84:838—52.

 

 

64. M. Seligman, Helplessness: On Depression, Development and Death (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1975).

 

 

65. M. Seligman and S. Maier, “Failure of Escape Traumatic Shock”, Journal of Experimental Psychology (1967) 74:1—9; and J. Overmier and M. Seligman, “Effects of Inescapable Shock upon Subsequent Escape”, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology (1967) 63:23—33.

 

 

66. D. Hiroto, “Locus of Control and Learned Helplessness”, Journal of Experimental Psychology (1974) 102:187—93.

 

 

67. D. Hiroto and M. Seligman, “Generality of Learned Helplessness in Man”, Journal of Personality of Social Psychology (1975) 31:311—27.

 

 

68. D. Klein and M. Seligman, “Reversal of Performance Deficits and Perceptual Deficits in Learned Helplessness and Depression”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1976) 85:11—26.

 

 

69. W. Miller and M. Seligman, “Depression and the Perception of Reinforcement”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1973) 82:62—73.

 

 

70. Abramson and Sackeim, “A Paradox”

 

 

71. A. Beck, Depression: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects (New York: Harper & Row, 1967).

 

 

72. Abramson and Sackeim, “A Paradox”.

 

 

73. Lefcourt, Locus of Control, pp. 96—109; and J. Phares, Locus of Control in Personality (Morristown, N.).: General Learning Press, 1976), pp. 144—56.

 

 

74. Phares, Locus of Control: and C. Crandall, W. Katkovsky, and V. Crandall, “Children’s Beliefs in Their Own Control of Reinforcement in Intellectual-Academic Situations”, Child Development (1965) 36:91—109.

 

 

75. J. Gillis and R. Jessor, “Effects of Brief Psychotherapy on Belief in Internal Control”, Psychotherapy: Research and Practice (1970) 7:135—37.

 

 

76. P. Dua, “Comparison of the Effects of Behaviorally Oriented Action and Psychotherapy Reeducation on Intraversion-Extraversion, Emotionality, and Internal vs. External Control”, Journal of Counseling Psychology (1970) 17:567—72.

 

 

77. S. Nowick and J. Bernes, “Effects of a Structured Camp Experience on Locus of Control”, Journal of Genetic Psychology (1973) 122:247—52.

 

 

78. M. Foulds, “Change in Locus of Internal-External Control,” Comparative Group Studies (1971) 2:293—300; M. Foulds, J. Guinan, and R. Warehine, “Marathon Group: Change in Perceived Locus of Control”, Journal of College Student Personnel (1974) 15:8—11; and M. Dianard and J. Shapiro, “Change in Locus of Control as a Function of Encounter Group Experiences”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1973) 82:514—18.

 

 

79. I. Yalom, Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy (New York: Basic Books, 1975), pp. 77—98.

 

 

80. D. York and C. Eisman, unpublished study.

 

 

81. J. Dreyer, University of West Virginia, unpublished study.

 

 

82. M. Lieberman, N. Solow, G. Bond, and J. Reibstein, “The Psychotherapeutic Impact of Women’s Consciousness-raising Groups”, Archives of General Psychology (1979) 36:161—68.

 

 

83. L. Horowitz, “On the Cognitive Structure of Interpersonal Problems Treated in Psychotherapy”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1979) 47:5—15.

 

 

84. G. Helweg, cited in J. Phares, Locus of Control, p. 169.

 

 

85. R. Jacobsen, cited in Phares, Locus of Control, p. 169.

 

 

86. К. Wilson, cited in Phares, Locus of Control, pp. 169—70.

 

 

87. M. Lieberman, I. Yalom, and M. Miles, Encounter Groups: First Facts (New York: Basic Books, 1973).

 

 

88. В. Skinner, cited in A. Bandura, Social Learning Theory (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.; Prentice Hall, 1977), p. 203.

 

 

89. L. Binswanger, Sigmund Freud: Reminiscences of a Friendship, trans. N. Guterman, (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1957) p. 90.

 

 

90. A. Bandura, “Presidential Address”, delivered at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, August 1974.

 

 

91. Ibid.; and A. Bandura, “The Self System in Reciprocal Determinism”, American Psychologist (1978) 33(4):344—58.

 

 

92. Bandura, “Presidential Address”, p. 633.

 

 

93. Epictetus, cited in H. Arendt, Willing—The Life of the Mind, vol. II (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978) p. 29.

 

 

94. Sartre, Being and Nothingness, p. 629.

 

 

95. S. Freud, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, vol. VI in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1960; originally published 1901), pp. 178—88.

 

 

96. O. Simonton, S. Matthews-Simonton, and J. Crieghton, Getting Well Again (Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1978).

 

 

97. I. Yalom and С. Greaves, “Group Therapy with the Terminally III”, American Journal of Psychiatry, (1977) 134(4):396—400; and D. Spiegel and I. Yalom, “Cancer Group”, International Journal of Group Psychotherapy (1978) 28(2):233—45.

 

 

98. I. Janis, Psychological Stress (New York: John Wiley, 1958).

 

 

99. V. Frankl, oral communication, 1972.

 

 

100. Yalom and Greaves, “Group Therapy”; and Spiegel and Yalom, “Cancer Group”.

 

 

101. S. Freud, “New Introductory Lectures on. Psychoanalysis”, vol. XXII in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1964; originally published 1933), p. 66.

 

 

102. M. Buber, “Guilt and Guilt Feelings”, Psychiatry (1957) 20:114—29.

 

 

103. M. Heidegger, Being and Time, trans. J. Macquarrie and E. Robinson (New York-Harper & Row, 1962), p. 327.

 

 

104. Ibid., p. 329.

 

 

105. Ibid., p. 330.

 

 

106. P. Tillich, The Courage to Be (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1952) p. 52.

 

 

107. S. Kierkegaard, The Sickness Unto Death (New York: Doubleday, 1941), pp. 186—87.

 

 

108. M. Friedman, introduction to M. Buber, Between Man and Man (New York: Macmillan, 1965), p. xix.

 

 

109. O. Rank, Will Therapy and Truth and Reality (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945).

 

 

110. R. May, ed., Existential Psychology (New York: Random House, 1969), p. 19.

 

 

111. R. May, Art of Counseling (Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon Press, Apex Books, 1967), p. 70.

 

 

112. R. May, E. Angel, and H. Ellenberger, eds., Existence (New York: Basic Books, 1958), p. 52.

 

 

113. A. Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being (Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand, 1962), p. 5.

 

 

114. M. Buber, The Knowledge of Man (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), pp. 121—48.

 

 

115. G. Murphy, Human Potentialities (New York: Basic Books, 1958).

 

 

116. E. Fromm, Man for Himself (New York: Rinehart, 1947).

 

 

117. С. Buhler, “Maturation and Motivation”, Dialectica (1951) 5:312—61.

 

 

118. G. Allport, Becoming (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1955).

 

 

119. С. Rogers, On Becoming a Person (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961).

 

 

120. С. Jung, Modern Man in Search of a Soul (New York: Harcourt, 1933).

 

 

121. Maslow, Psychology of Being, pp. 19—41.

 

 

122. К. Horney, Neurosis and Human Growth (New York: W. W. Norton, 1950).

 

 

123. Ibid., p. 17.

 

 

124. Maslow, Psychology of Being, pp. 3—4.

 

 

125.). S. Mill, cited in Arendt, Willing, p. 9.

 

 

126. St. Augustine, cited in Arendt, Willing, p. 98.

 

 

127. F. Kafka, Tagebucher 1910—1923 (Germany: S. Fischer Verlag; New York: Schocken, 1948), p. 350.

 

 

128. F. Kafka, The Trial (New York: Modern Library, Random House, 1956), pp. 247—78.

 

 

129. J. Heuscher, “Inauthenticity, Flight from Freedom, Despair,” American Journal of Psychoanalysis (1976) 36:331—7.

 

 

130. Kafka, The Trial, p. 266.

 

 

131. Kafka, cited in M. Buber, The Knowledge of Man (New York: Harper & Row, 1965) p. 143.

 

 

132. Buber, Knowledge of Man, p. 143.

 

 

133. Heuscher, “Inauthenticity”.

 

 

134. Ibid.

 

 

135. S. Kierkegaard, cited in R. May, The Meaning of Anxiety, rev. ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977) p. 40.

 

 

К главе 7

 

 

1. A. Wheelis, “The Place of Action in Personality Change,” Psychiatry (1950) 13:135—48.

 

 

2. A. Wheelis, “Will and Psychoanalysis,” Journal of Psychoanalytic Association (1956) 4:285—303.

 

 

4. Б. Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, vol. I (New York: Basic Books, 1953), p. 41.

 

 

5. S. Freud, cited in R. May, Love and Will (New York: W. W. Norton, 1969), p. 183.

 

 

6. May, Love and Will, p. 183.

 

 

7, S. Freud, The Ego and the Id. vol. XIX in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1961, originally published in 1923), p. 50.

 

 

8. May, Love and Will, p. 198.

 

 

9. Т. Hobbes, cited in H. Arendt, Willing, vol. II in The Life of Mind (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978), p. 23.

 

 

10. В. Spinoza, The Chief Works, ed. R. H. Elwes, vol. II (New York: Dover, 1951), p. 390.

 

 

11. May, Love and Will, pp. 197—98.

 

 

12. Aristotle, cited in Arendt, Willing, pp. 15—18.

 

 

13. Arendt, Willing, p. 32.

 

 

14. I. Kant, cited in Arendt, Willing, p. 6.

 

 

15. L. Farber, The Ways of the Will (New York: Basic Books, 1966), p. 27.

 

 

16. Wheelis, “Will and Psychoanalysis”.

 

 

17. S. Arieti, The Will to Be Human (New York: Quadrangle Books, 1972), p. 2.

 

 

18. Wheelis, “Will and Psychoanalysis”.

 

 

19. Arendt, Willing, p. 15.

 

 

20. A. Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation (Indian Hills, Col.: Falcon’s Wing Press, 1958).

 

 

21. F. Nietzsche, cited in Arendt, Willing, p. 161.

 

 

22. Aristotle, cited in Arendt, Willing, p. 16.

 

 

23. Arendt, Willing, p. 13; and May, Love and Will, p. 243.

 

 

24. W. James, Psychology (Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett, 1963), pp. 376—80.

 

 

25. E. Becker, Denial of Death (New York: Free Press, 1973).

 

 

26. O. Rank, Will Therapy and Truth and Reality trans. J. Taft, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945).

 

 

27. Ibid., p. 111.

 

 

28. Ibid., p. 24.

 

 

29. Ibid., p. 28.

 

 

30. O. Rank, “The Training of the Will and Emotional Development,” Journal of Otto Rank Associates, (December 1967) 3:51—74.

 

 

31. Ibid., p. 68.

 

 

32. Ibid., p. 68.

 

 

33. Ibid., p. 69.

 

 

34. Rank, Will Therapy, p. 230.

 

 

35. Ibid., p. 7.

 

 

36. Ibid., p. 9.

 

 

37. Ibid., p. 12.

 

 

38. Ibid., p. 8.

 

 

39. Ibid., p. 11.

 

 

40. S. Tomkins, cited in R. May, Love and Will (New York: W. W. Norton, 1969), p. 194.

 

 

41. Wheelis, “Will and Psychoanalysis”.

 

 

42. Rank, Will Therapy, p. 16.

 

 

43. Ibid, p. 56.

 

 

44. L. Farber, The Ways of the Will (New York: Basic Books, 1966).

 

 

45. Ibid., p. 8.

 

 

46. Ibid., p. 15.

 

 

47. May, Love and Will, p. 197.

 

 

48. Ibid., p. 211.

 

 

49. Ibid., p. 243.

 

 

50. Ibid., p. 211.

 

 

51. S. Freud, Interpretation of Dreams, vol. V in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1953; originally published in 1900), pp. 565—70.

 

 

52. Ibid., pp. 550—572.

 

 

53. May, Love and Will, p. 210.

 

 

54. Ibid., p. 211.

 

 

55. Ibid., p. 218.

 

 

56. Ibid.

 

 

57. Rank, Will Therapy, p. 12.

 

 

58. H. Arendt, Willing. p. 158.

 

 

59. E. Keen, cited in May, Love and Will, p. 268.

 

 

60. May, Love and Will, p. 165.

 

 

61. J. Nemiah, “Alexithymia and Psychosomatic Illness”, Journal of Continuing Education and Psychiatry (October 1978) pp. 25—38.

 

 

62. S. Freud, Studies on Hysteria, vol. II in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1955; originally published, 1895).

 

 

63. I. Yalom, Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy (New York: Basic Books, 1975), pp. 77—79.

 

 

64. S. Rose, “Intense Feeling Therapy”, in Emotional Flooding, ed. P. Olsen (New York: Penguin Books, 1977), pp. 80—96.

 

 

65. Т. Stampfl and D. Lewis, “Essentials of Implosive Therapy”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1967) 6:496—503.

 

 

66. A. Lowen, Bioenergetics (N.Y.: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1975).

 

 

67. P. Olsen, Emotional Flooding, p. 77.

 

 

68. A. Janov, The Primal Scream (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1970).

 

 

69. J. P. Sartre, The Age of Reason (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952), p. 144.

 

 

70. I. Yalom, Bloch, et al, “The Impact of a Weekend Group Experience on Individual Therapy”, Archives of General Psychiatry (1977) 34:399—415.

 

 

71. D. Hamburg, oral communication, 1968.

 

 

72. F. Alexander and T. French, Psychoanalytic Theory: Principles and Applications (New York: Ronald Press, 1946).

 

 

73. F. Perls, The Gestalt Approach and Eye-Witness to Therapy (Palo Alto, Calif.: Science and Behavior Books, 1973), p. 63.

 

 

74. Ibid., pp. 63—64.

 

 

75. Ibid., p. 68.

 

 

76. Ibid., pp. 73—74.

 

 

77. Ibid., p. 78.

 

 

78. F. Perls, Gestalt Therapy Verbatim (Toronto, New York and London: Bantam Books, 1971), p. 1.

 

 

79. E. Polster and M. Polster, Gestalt Therapy Integrated (New York: Brunner Mazel, 1973), p. 229.

 

 

80. May, Love and Will, p. 216.

 

 

81. J. Bugental, “Intentionality and Ambivalence”, in William James: Unfinished Business, ed. R. MacLeod (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1969), pp. 93—98.

 

 

82. Ibid.

 

 

83. M. Heidegger, Being and Time, trans. J. Macquarrie and E. Robinson (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 158.

 

 

84. A. Camus, The Fall and Exile in the Kingdom (New York: Modern Library, 1965), p. 63.

 

 

85. S. Beckett, En Attendant Godot (Paris: Les Editions de Minuit, 1952); my translation.

 

 

86. W. James, Principles of Psychology (Greenwich, Conn.: Faweett, 1963), chap. 26, pp. 365—401.

 

 

87. R. Goulding, “New Directions in Transactional Analysis: Creating an Environment for Redecision and Change”, in Progress in Group and Family Therapy, eds. C. Sager and H. Kaplan (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1972), pp. 105—34.

 

 

88. J. Dusay and C. Steiner, “Transactional Analysis in Groups”, in Comprehensive Group Therapy, eds. H. Kaplan and B. Sadock (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1971), pp. 198—240.

 

 

89. Goulding, “New Directions”, pp. 110—112.

 

 

90. E. Erikson, Childhood and Society, 2nd ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1963).

 

 

91. J. Gardner, Grendel (New York: Ballantine Books, 1971), p. 115.

 

 

92. F. Estees, oral communication, 197'/.

 

 

93. Heidegger, Being and Time, p. 310.

 

 

94. Wheelis, “Will and Psychoanalysis.”

 

 

95. Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. I, p. 428.

 

 

96. E. Menaker, “Will and the Problem of Masochism”, Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy (1969), 1:186—226.

 

 

97. B. Jones and H. Gerard, Foundations of Social Psychology (New York: John Wiley, 1967), pp. 186—226.

 

 

98. L. Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Evanston, Ill.: Row, Peterson, 1957).

 

 

99. Jones and Gerard, Social Psychology, pp. 193—94.

 

 

100. L. Rhinehart. The Dice Man (New York: William Morrow, 1971).

 

 

101. J. Bugental, “Someone Needs to Worry: The Existential Anxiety of Responsibility and Decision”, Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy (1967) 2:41—53.

 

 

102. R. White, “Motivation Reconsidered,” The Psychological Review (1959) 66:297—333.

 

 

103. К. Horney, Neurosis and Human Growth (New York: W. W. Norton, 1950).

 

 

104. Ibid., p. 17.

 

 

105. H. Greenwald, Decision Therapy (New York: Peter Wyden, 1973), p. 154.

 

 

106. Farber, Ways of the Will, p. 450.

 

 

107. Greenwald, Decision Therapy, p. 22.

 

 

108. Ibid., p. 38.

 

 

109. May, Love and Will, pp. 236—37.

 

 

110. J. Frank, “Emotional Reaction of American Soldiers to an Unfamiliar Disease”, Archives of General Psychiatry (1967) 17:416—427.

 

 

111. M. Leiberman, I. Yalom, and M. Miles, Encounter Groups: First Facts (New York: Basic Books, 1973), pp. 365—67.

 

 

112. R. Nisbett and T. Wilson, “Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Process”, Psychological Reviews (1977) 84:231—58.

 

 

113. I. Yalom, Group Psychotherapy. pp. 440—45.

 

 

114. S. Freud, “Constructions in Analysis”, vol. XXIII in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1964; originally published in 1937), p. 259.

 

 

115. Ibid., 266.

 

 

116. Rank, Will Therapy, p. 44.

 

 

117. M. Gatch and M. Temerlin, “Belief in Psychic Determinism and the Behavior of the Psychotherapist”, Review of Existential Psychology and Psychiatry, (1965) 5:16—35.

 

 

118. Rank, Will Therapy, p. 36.

 

 

119. E. Goffman, “The Moral Career of the Mental Patient”, Psychiatry (1959) 22:123—42.

 

 

120. С. Rycroft, Psychoanalysis Observed (London: Constable, 1966), p. 18.

 

 

К главе 8

 

 

1. M. Heidegger, Being and Time, trans. J. Macquarrie and E. Robinson (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 57.

 

 

2. S. Freud, “Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety”, vol. XX in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1959; originally published in 1929), pp. 119—23.

 

 

3. P. Mullahy, Psychoanalysis and Interpersonal Psychiatry: The Contribution of Harry Stack Sullivan (New York: Science House, 1970), p. 137.

 

 

4. С. Rogers, “The Loneliness of Contemporary Man as Seen in the Case of Ellen West”, in Review of Existential Psychology and Psychiatry (1961) 1:94—101.

 

 

5. I. Yalom, Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy, 2nd ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1975), p. 80.

 

 

6. Rogers, “Loneliness of Contemporary Man”; F. Fromm-Reichman, “Loneliness”, Psychiatry (1959) 22:1—16; H. Leiderman, “Intervention”, Psychiatry Clinics [1969) 6:155—74; E. Josephson and M. Josephson, Man Alone (New York: Dell Books, 1962); J. Rubins, “On the Psychopathology of Loneliness”, American Journal of Psychoanalysis (1964) 24:153—65; D. Reisman, R. Denny, and N. Glaser, The Lonely Crowd (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1950); G. Moustakas, Loneliness (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1961); M. Wood, Paths of Loneliness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1953); A. Wenkert, “Regaining Identity through Relatedness”, American Journal of Psychoanalysis (1961) 22:227—33; and W. Willig, “Discussion of A. Wenker paper”, American Journal of Psychoanalysis (1961) 22:236—39.

 

 

7. Т. Wolfe, Look Homeward, Angel (New York: Charles Scribner, 1929), p. 31.

 

 

8. Heidegger, Being and Time, p. 284.

 

 

9. M. Abrams et al., eds., Everyman, in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, vol. I (New York: W. W. Norton, 1962), pp. 281—303.

 

 

10. E. Fromm, The Art of Loving, (New York: Bantam Books, 1956), p. 7.

 

 

11. A. Camus, “La Mort dans l’ame”, in L’Envers et l’endroit (Paris: Librairie Gallimard, 1937), pp. 87—88; passage translated by Marilyn Yalom.

 

 

12. R, Frost, “Desert Places,” in Complete Poems of Robert Frost (New York: Henry Holt, 1949), p. 386.

 

 

13. К. Reinhardt, The Existential Revolt (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1952), p. 235.

 

 

14. Heidegger, Being and Time, p. 233.

 

 

15. Ibid., p. 393.

 

 

16. H. Drefuss, “Commentary on Being and Time”, unpublished manuscript, 1977.

 

 

17. F. Nietzsche, cited in M. Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics (New York: Anchor Books, 1961), p. 29.

 

 

18. L. Fierman, ed., Effective Psychotherapy: The Contributions of Helmuth Kaiser (New York: Free Press, 1965), p. 126.

 

 

19. E. Fromm, Escape From Freedom (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1941), p. 29.

 

 

20. O. Rank, Will Therapy and Truth and Reality, trans. J. Taft (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945), p. 123.

 

 

21. J. Bugental, The Search for Authenticity (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965), p. 309.

 

 

22. M. Buber, Between Man and Man (New York: Macmillan, 1965), p. II.

 

 

23. Ibid., p. 175.

 

 

24. M. Buber, I and Thou (New York: Charles Scribner, 1970), p. 69.

 

 

25. Ibid., pp. 76—79.

 

 

26. Buber, Between Man and Man, p. xx.

 

 

27. Buber, I and Thou. p. 54.

 

 

28. Ibid., p. 58.

 

 

29. Ibid., p. 62.

 

 

30. Buber, Between Man and Man, p. 22—23.

 

 

31. Ibid., p. 19.

 

 

32. Ibid., p. 23.

 

 

33. V. Frankl, “Encounter: The Concept and Its Vulgarization”, Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis (1973) 1:73—83.

 

 

34. Buber, Between Man and Man, p. 19.

 

 

35. Ibid., pp. 13—14.

 

 

36. Buber, I and Thou, pp. 84—85.

 

 

37. Hillel, cited in Buber, I and Thou, p. 85 n.

 

 

38. M. Buber, Between Man and Man, pp. 1—2.

 

 

39. A. Maslow, Toward A Psychology of Being (New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1968), pp. 21—22.

 

 

40. Ibid., p. 35.

 

 

41. Ibid., p. 36.

 

 

42. Ibid., pp. 42—43.

 

 

43. E. Fromm, Art of Loving (New York: Bantam Books, 1963).

 

 

44. Ibid., p. 7.

 

 

45. Ibid.. p. 15.

 

 

46. Ibid., p. 17.

 

 

47. Ibid., p. 34.

 

 

48. Ibid., p. 18.

 

 

49. E. Fromm, Man for Himself (New York: Faweett World Library, 1969), pp. 68—122.

 

 

50. Fromm, Art of Loving, pp. 21—22.

 

 

51. Buber, I and Thou, p. 67.

 

 

52. Fromm, Art of Loving, p. 61.

 

 

53. Ibid., p. 39.

 

 

54. S. Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling/The Sickness unto Death, trans. W. Lowrie (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Anchor, Г954), p. 177.

 

 

55. L. Carroll, cited in J. Solomon, “Alice and the Red King”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1963) 44:64—73.

 

 

56. I. Yalom, Theory and Practice of Group Therapy (New York: Basic Books, 1975), pp. 440—45.

 

 

57. S. Arieti, “Psychotherapy of Severe Depression”, American Journal of Psychiatry (1977) 134:864—68.

 

 

58. L. Fierman, ed., Effective Psychotherapy: The Contribution of Helmuth Kaiser, op. cit, p. 131.

 

 

59. Ibid., p. 110.

 

 

60. К. Bach, Exit-Existentialism (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1973), p. 28.

 

 

61. S. Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling I The Sickness unto Death, p. 175.

 

 

62. Fierman, Effective Psychotherapy, p. 120.

 

 

63. Fromm, Escape from Freedom, p. 158.

 

 

64. S. Freud, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, vol. VI in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1960; originally published 1901), p. 158.

 

 

65. E. Greenspan, “Fantasies of Women Confronting Death”, Journal of Consulting Psychology (1975) 29:252—60.

 

 

66. V. Soloviev, cited in E. Becker, Angel in Armor (New York: George Braziller, 1969), p. 5.

 

 

67. S. Kierkegaard, Either/Or, vol. 1., trans. D. Swanson and L. Swanson (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1944), pp. 297—443.

 

 

68. Buber, Between Man and Man, pp. 29—30.

 

 

69. M. Buber, The Knowledge of Man (New York: Harper Torchbook, 1965), p. 77.

 

 

70. A. Camus, A Happy Death (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972), pp. 81—82.

 

 

К главе 9

 

 

1. В. Russell, The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell (London: Alien & Unwin, 1975), p. 209.

 

 

2. Ibid., p. 146.

 

 

3. I. Yalom, Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy (New York: Basic Books, 1975), pp. 78—83.

 

 

4. A. Whitehead, Religion in the Making (London: Cambridge University Press, 1962), p. 16.

 

 

5. E. Fromm, The Art Of Loving (New York: Bantam Books, 1963), p. 94.

 

 

6. Moustakas, Loneliness (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1961), p. 47.

 

 

7. A. Camus, cited in M. Charlesworth, The Existentialists and Jean-Paul Sartre (Brisbane, Australia: University of Queensland Press, 1975), p. 5.

 

 

8. R. Hobson, “Loneliness”, Journal of Analytic Psychology (1974) 19:71—89.

 

 

9. R. Bollendorf, unpublished doctoral dissertation. Northern Illinois University, 1976.

 

 

10. O. Will, oral communication, child psychiatry grand rounds, Stanford University, Department of Psychiatry, 1978.

 

 

11. L. Sherby, “The Use of Isolation in Ongoing Psychotherapy”, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, (1975) 12:173—74.

 

 

12. I. Yalom, et al., “The Impact of a Weekend Group Experience on Individual Therapy”, Archives of General Psychiatry (1977) 34:399—415.

 

 

13. С. Truax and К. Mitchell, “Research on Certain Therapist Interpersonal Skills in Relation to Process and Outcome”, in Handbook of Psychotherapy, A. Bergin and S. Gar-field, eds. (New York: John Wiley, 1971), pp. 299—344; С. Rogers, “Empathic: An Unappreciated Way of Being”, Counseling Psychologist (1975) 5(2):2—10; C. Truax and R. Carkhuff. Toward Effective Counseling and Psychotherapy: Training and Practice (Chicago: Aldine, 1967); G. Barrett-Lennard, “Dimensions of Therapist Response as Causal Factors in Therapeuric Change”, Psychological Monographs 76, no. 43 (whole no. 562), 1962; E. Fieder, “A Comparison of Therapeutic Relationships in Psychoanalytic, Non-Directive and Adierian Therapy”, Journal of Consulting Psychology (1950) 14:436—45; A. Bergin and L. Jasper, “Correlates of Empathy in Psychotherapy: A Replication”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1969) 74:477—81; and A. Bergin and S. Solomon “Personality and Performance Correlates of Empathic Understanding in Psychotherapy”, in J. Hart and T. Tomlinson, eds., New Directions in Client-Centered Therapy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970), pp. 223—36.

 

 

14. S. Standal and R. Corsini, eds., Critical Incidents in Psychotherapy (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall, 1959).

 

 

15. Ibid., p. 3.

 

 

16. Ibid., p. 41.

 

 

17. Ibid., p. 67.

 

 

18. Ibid., p. 90.

 

 

19. Ibid., p. 158.

 

 

20. Ibid., p. 178.

 

 

21. S. Freud, Studies on Hysteria, vol. II in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1964, originally published in 1895).

 

 

22. M. Buber, The Knowledge of Man, trans. M. Friedman and R. Smith (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1965), p. 81.

 

 

23. Ibid., p. 82.

 

 

24. I. Yalom and G. Elkin, Every Day Gets a Little Closer: A Twice-Told Therapy (New York: Basic Books, 1974).

 

 

25. H. Kaiser, Effective Psychotherapy: The Contribution of Hellmuth Kaiser, ed. L. Fierman (New York: Free Press, 1965), p. 152.

 

 

26. К. Fisher, “Ultimate Goals in. Therapy”, Journal of Existentialism: The International Quarterly of Existential Thought (1967) 7:215—32.

 

 

27. M. Buber, The Knowledge of Man (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1965), pp. 171—72.

 

 

28. С. Sequin, Love and Psychotherapy (New York: Libra, 1965), p. 113.

 

 

29. Ibid., p. 121.

 

 

30. M. Buber, Knowledge of Man. p. 82.

 

 

31. M. Buber, I and Thou. p. 179.

 

 

32. Sequin, Love and Psychotherapy p. 123.

 

 

33. M. Heidegger, Being and Time, (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 158.

 

 

34. Buber, Knowledge of Man, pp. 166—84.

 

 

35. D. Rosenhan, “On Being Sane in Insane Places”, Science (1973) 179:250—58.

 

 

36. S. Freud, Observations on Transference-Love, vol. XII in Standard Edition (London: Hogarth Press, 1958; originally published in 1915), p. 169.

 

 

37. Ibid., p. 165.

 

 

38. S. Ferenezi, cited in S. Foulkes, “A Memorandum on Group Therapy”, British Military Memorandum, ADM, July 1945.

 

 

39. R. Greenson and M. Wexler, “The Non-Transference Relationship in the Psychoanalytic Situation”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1969) 50:27—39.

 

 

40. A. Freud, “The Widening Scope of Indications for Psychoanalysis”, discussion, Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association (1954) 2:607—20.

 

 

41. Greenson and Wexler, “Non-Transference Relationship”.

 

 

42. Ibid.

 

 

43. M. Buber, I and Thou, pp. 84—85.

 

 

К главе 10

 

 

1. Anonymous, cited in H. Cantril and C. Bumstead, Reflections on the Human Venture (New York: New York University Press, 1960), p. 308.

 

 

2. L. Tolstoy, My Confession, My Religion, The Gospel in Brief (New York: Charles Scribner, 1929), p. 12.

 

 

3. Ibid., p. 13.

 

 

4. Ibid., p. 14.

 

 

5. Ibid.

 

 

6. Ibid., p. 20.

 

 

7. A. Camus, cited in A. Jaffe. The Myth of Meaning in the Work of C. J. Jung (London: Hodden &: Stoughton, 1970), title page.

 

 

8. С. Jung, cited in Jaffe, Myth of Meaning, p. 130.

 

 

9. С. Jung, Collected Works: The Practice of Psychotherapy, vol. XVI (New York: Pantheon, Bollingen Series, 1966), p. 83.

 

 

10. V. Frankl, “The Feeling of Meaninglessness: A Challenge to Psychotherapy”, American Journal of Psychoanalysis (1972) 32:85—89; V. Frankl, The Will to Meaning (New York: World, 1969), p. 90; and V. Frankl, The Doctor and the Soul (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), p. xi.

 

 

11. S. Maddi, “The Search for Meaning”, in The Nebraska Symposium on Motivation—1970, ed. W. Arnold and M. Page (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970), pp. 137—86.

 

 

12. S. Maddi, “The Existential Neurosis”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1967) 72:311—25.

 

 

13. В. Wolman, “Principles of International Psychotherapy” in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice (1975) 12:149—59.

 

 

14. N. Hobbs, “Sources of Gain in Psychotherapy”, American Psychologist (1962) 17:742—48.

 

 

15. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. IV, ed. P. Edwards, et al. (New York: Macmillan and Free Press, 1967), pp. 467—78.

 

 

16. В. Pascal, cited in V. Frankl, The Doctor and the Soul, 2nd ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), p. 31.

 

 

17. V. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning (Boston: Beacon Press, 1963), pp. 186—87.

 

 

18. M. Maimonides, The Guide of the Perplexed, vol. II (Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press, 1963), pp. 634—36.

 

 

19. C. Jung, cited in Jaffe, Myth of Meaning, p. 130.

 

 

20. С. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections (New York: Pantheon Books, 1961), pp. 255—56.

 

 

21. G. Hegel, cited in Jaffe, Myth of Meaning, p. 145.

 

 

22. R. Rilke, Ausgewahlte Werke, vol. I (Leipzig: Iminsel-Verlag, 1930), p. 28; translation by Marilyn Yalom.

 

 

23. Т. Mann, cited in Jaffe, Myth of Meaning, p. 140.

 

 

24. Teilhard de Chardin, The Phenomenon of Man (New York: Harper, 1959).

 

 

25. С. Merchant, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and Scientific Revolution (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980).

 

 

26. A. Pope, The Selected Poetry of Pope, ed. M. Price (New York: New American Library, 1978), p. 133.

 

 

27. Т. Dobzhansky, The Biology of Ultimate Concern (New York: New American Library, 1967), p. 132.

 

 

28. P. Teilhard de Chardin, cited in Dobzhansky, Biology of Ultimate Concern, p. 137.

 

 

29. A. Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1955).

 

 

30. A. Camus, A Happy Death (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972).

 

 

31. A. Camus, The Stranger (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946).

 

 

32. A. Camus, Myth of Sisyphus, p. 90.

 

 

33. A. Camus, The Plague (New York: Modern Library, 1948).

 

 

34. J. P. Sartre, cited in R. Hepburn, “Questions about the Meaning of Life”, Religious Studies (1965) 1:125—40.

 

 

35. J. P. Sartre, No Exit and Three Other Plays (New York: Vintage Books, 1955).

 

 

36. Ibid., p. 91.

 

 

37. Ibid., p. 92.

 

 

38. Ibid.

 

 

39. Ibid., p. 94.

 

 

40. Ibid., p. 94.

 

 

41. Ibid., p. 105.

 

 

42. Ibid., p. 108.

 

 

43. Ibid., p. 121—122.

 

 

44. Ibid., p. 123.

 

 

45. Ibid., p. 124.

 

 

46. G. Allport, cited in V. Franki, Will to Meaning, p. 66.

 

 

47. С. Jung, cited in Jaffe, Myth of Meaning, p. 146.

 

 

48. К. Jaspers, cited in Frankl, Will to Meaning, p. 38.

 

 

49. W. Durant, On the Meaning of Life (New York: Ray Long and Richard R. Smith, 1932), pp. 128—29.

 

 

50. Ibid., p. 129.

 

 

51. I. Taylor, cited in S. Maddi, “The Strenuousness of the Creative Life”, in I. A. Taylor and J. W. Getzels, eds.. Perspectives in Creativity (Chicago: Aldine, 1975), pp. 173—90.

 

 

52. L. Beethoven, cited in M. Von Andics, Suicide and the Meaning of Life (London: William Hodge, 1947), p. 178.

 

 

53. A. Roe, “Changes in Scientific Activities with Age”, Science (1965) 150:313—18.

 

 

54. M. Crosby, oral communication, 1979.

 

 

55. P. Koestenbaum, Is There an Answer to Death? (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1976), pp. 37—38.

 

 

56. J. Brennecke and R. Amick, The Struggle for Significance, 2nd ed. (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Clencoe Press, 1975), pp. 9—10.

 

 

57. A. Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being (N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1962), p. 147.

 

 

58. M. Buber, “The Way of Man According to the Teachings of Hasidism”, in Religion from Tolstoy to Camus, ed. W. Kaufman (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1961), pp. 425—41.

 

 

59. Ibid., p. 437.

 

 

60. E. Erikson, Childhood and Society, 2nd ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1963), pp. 247—74.

 

 

61. G. Vaillant, Adaptation to Life (Boston: Little, Brown, 1977); R. Gould, “The Phases of Adult Life: A Study in Developmental Psychology”, American Journal of Psychiatry (1972) 129:521—31; and D. Levinson, The Seasons of A Man’s Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978).

 

 

62. Erikson, Childhood, p. 267.

 

 

63. G. Vaillant, Adaptation, p. 228.

 

 

64. Ibid., p. 232.

 

 

65. Ibid., p. 343.

 

 

66. N. Haan and J. Block, cited in G. Vaillant, op. cit., p. 330.

 

 

67. V. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy (New York: Pocket Books, 1963).

 

 

68. V. Frankl, oral communication, 1971.

 

 

69. V. Frankl, Will to Meaning, p. 21.

 

 

70. V. Frankl, “Self-transcendence as a Human Phenomenon”, Journal of Humanistic Psychology (1966) 6:97—107.

 

 

71. С. Buhler, “The Human Course of Life in Its Goal Aspects”, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, (1964) 4:1—17.

 

 

72. G. Allport, Becoming: Basic Considerations for a Psychology of Personality (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1955).

 

 

73. V. Frankl, Man’s Search, p. 166.

 

 

74. V. Frankl, “Self-transcendence”.

 

 

75. W. Frankena, Ethics (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1973) p. 86.

 

 

76. A. Watts, The Meaning of Happiness (New York: Perennial Library, Harper & Row, 1940), p. vi.

 

 

77. V. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, p. 154.

 

 

78. A. Ungersma, The Search for Meaning (Philadelphia, Pa.: Westminister Press, 1961), pp. 27f.

 

 

79. V. Frankl, “Self-transcendence”.

 

 

80. V. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, p. 155.

 

 

81. Ibid., p. 154.

 

 

82. V. Frankl, Will to Meaning, p. 70.

 

 

83. V. Frankl, cited in J. Fabry, The Pursuit of Meaning (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), p. 40.

 

 

84. Ibid., p. 44.

 

 

85. V. Frankl, Will to Meaning, p. 21.

 

 

86. S. Bloch et al., “Outcome in Psychotherapy Evaluated by Independent Judges”, British Journal of Psychiatry (1977) 131:410—14; and G. Bond, et al., “The Evaluation of the Target Problem’ Approach to Outcome Measures” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice (1979) 16(1): 48—54.

 

 

87. J. Gardner, doctoral dissertation. University of Chicago, 1977.

 

 

88. S. Freud, cited in Edwards, “Meaning and Value”, p. 477.

 

 

89. V. Frankl, Will to Meaning, p. 84.

 

 

90. J. Crumbaugh. “Frankl’s Logotherapy: A New Orientation in Counseling”, Journal of Religion and Health (1971) 10:373—86.

 

 

91. Ing. Alois Habinger, cited in V. Frankl, “The Feeling of Meaninglessness: A Challenge to Psychotherapy”, American Journal of Psychoanalysis (1972) 32:85—89.

 

 

92. Maddi, “Search for Meaning”; Maddi, “Existential Neurosis”; and S. Kobasa and S. Maddi, “Existential Personality Theory,” in Current Personality Theory, ed. R. Corsini (Itasca, III.: Peacock Books, 1979).

 

 

93. S. Maddi, oral communications, 1979.

 

 

94. S. Maddi, S. Kobasa, and M. Hoover, “The Alienation Test”, Journal of Humanistic Psychology (1979) 19(4): 73—76.

 

 

95. Maddi, “Search for Meaning.”

 

 

96. J. Pike, Beyond Anxiety (New York: Charles Scribner, 1953).

 

 

97. J. Crumbaugh and L. Maholick, “An Experimental Study in Existentialism: The Approach to Frankl’s Concept of Noogenic Neurosis”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1964) 20:200—207.

 

 

98. J. Braun and G. Dolmino, “The Purpose in Life Test,” in The Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook, ed. О. К. Buros (Highland Park, N.J.: Gryphon Press, 1978), p. 656.

 

 

99. Ibid.

 

 

100. Ibid.

 

 

101. J. Battista and R. Almond, “The Development of Meaning in Life”, Psychiatry (1973) 36:409—27.

 

 

102. С. Garfield, “A Psychometric and Clinical Investigation of Frankl’s Concept of Existential Vacuum and of Anomie”, Psychiatry (1973) 36:396—408.

 

 

103. Braun and Domino, “Purpose in Life Test”.

 

 

104. Ibid.

 

 

105. J. Crumbaugh, “Cross-Validation of Purpose in Life Test”, Journal of Individual Psychology, (1968) 24:74—81.

 

 

106. M. Familetti, “A Comparison of the Meaning and Purpose in Life of Delinquent and Non-delinquent High School Boys”, United States International University, Dissertation Abstracts International Sept. 1975 vol. 36(3-A), 1825.

 

 

107. В. Padelford, “Relationship between Drug Involvement and Purpose in Life”, San Diego State University, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1974) 30(3):303—5.

 

 

108. Crumbaugh, “Cross-Validation”.

 

 

109. Ibid.

 

 

110. Crumbaugh, “Frankl’s Logotherapy”.

 

 

111. R. Jacobson, D. Ritter, and L. Mueller, “Purpose in Life and Personal Values among Adult Alcoholics”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1977) 33(1)314—16.

 

 

112. В. Sheffield and P. Pearson, “Purpose in Life in a Sample of British Psychiatric Outpatients”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1974) 30(4)459.

 

 

113. D. Sallee and J. Casciani, “Relationship between Sex Drive and Sexual Frustration and Purpose in Life”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1967) 32(2) 273—75.

 

 

114. J. Thomas and E. Weiner, “Psychological Differences among Groups of Critically Ill Hospitalized Patients, Noncritically III Hospitalized Patients and Well Controls”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1974) 42(2) 274—79.

 

 

115. J. Crandall and R. Rasmussen, “Purpose in Life as Related to Specific Values”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1975) 31(3) 483—85.

 

 

116. Ibid.; and D. Soderstrom and E. Wright, “Religious Orientation and Meaning in Life”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1977) 33(1) 65—68.

 

 

117. J. McCarthy, “Death Anxiety, Intrinsicness of Religion and Purpose in Life among Nuns and Roman Catholic Female Undergraduates”, Dissertation Abstracts International (1975) vol. 35(11-B) 5646.

 

 

118.             P. Pearson and B. Sheffield, “Purpose in Life and Social Attitudes in Psychiatric Patients”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1975) 31(2) 330—32.

 

 

119. J. Crumbaugh, Sister Mary Raphael, and R. Shrader, “Frankl’s Will to Meaning in a Religious Order”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1970) 21(2) 206—7. 120. McCarthy, op. cit.; and J. Blazer, “The Relationship between Meaning in Life and Fear of Death”, Psychology (1973) 10(2) 33—34.

 

 

121. L. Doerries, “Purpose in Life and Social Participation”, Journal of Individual Psychology, (1970) 26(l):50—53; and R. Matteson, “Purpose in Life as Related to Involvement in Organized Groups and Certain Sociocultural Variables”, Dissertation Abstracts International (1975) vol. 35(8-BO) 4147—48.

 

 

122. Matteson, “Purpose in Life”.

 

 

123. A. Butler and L. Carr, “Purpose in Life through Social Action”, Journal of Social Psychology (1968) 74(2) 243—50.

 

 

124. D. Sharpe and L. Viney, “Weltanschauung and the Purpose in Life Test”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1973) 29(4) 489—91.

 

 

125. Matteson, “Purpose in Life”.

 

 

126. G. Sargent, “Motivation and Meaning: Frankl’s Logotherapy in the Work Situation”, Dissertation Abstracts international (1973) vol. 34(4-B), 1785.

 

 

127. Garfield, “Psychometric and Clinical Investigation”.

 

 

128. Padelford, “Drug Involvement and Purpose in Life”.

 

 

129. Crumbaugh, “Cross-Validation”.

 

 

130. Sheffield and Pearson, “Purpose in Life and Social Attitudes”.

 

 

131. Battista and Almond, “Development of Meaning”.

 

 

132. M. Carney and B. Sheffield, “The Effects of Pulse ЕСТ in Neurotic and Endogenous Depression”, British Journal of Psychiatry (1974) 125:91—94.

 

 

К главе 11

 

 

1. V. Frankl, “What Is Meant by Meaning”, Journal of Existentialism (1966) 7:21—28.

 

 

2. Ibid.

 

 

3. С. Kluckholm, “Values and Value-Orientation in the Theory of Action”, in Toward A General Theory of Action, ed. T. Parsons and E. Shils (Cambridge, Mass.; Harvard University Press, 1951), p. 396.

 

 

4. Ibid., pp. 388—434.

 

 

5. L. Tolstoy, My Confession, My Religion, The Gospel in Brief (New York: Charles Scribner, 1929), p. 20.

 

 

6. Ibid., p. 185.

 

 

7. В. Russell, A Free Man’s Worship (Portland, Me.; T. B. Mosher, 1927).

 

 

8. E. Becker, Escape from Evil (New York; Free Press, 1975), p. 3.

 

 

9. V. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy (New York: Pocket Books, 1963), p. 192.

 

 

10. D. Нume, cited in A. Flew, “Tolstoi and the Meaning of Life”, Ethics (1963) 73:110—18.

 

 

11. В. Wolman, “Principles of Interactional Psychotherapy”, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice (1975) 12:149—59.

 

 

12. V. Frankl, Man’s Search, p. 176.

 

 

13. E. Fromm, Escape From Freedom (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1941), p. 13.

 

 

14. D. Suzuki, “East and West”, in E. Fromm, D. Suzuki, and R. DeMartino, Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), pp. 1—10.

 

 

15. Matthew 6:26 (King James’ Version).

 

 

16. Luke 12:27 (King James’ Version).

 

 

17. J. Brennecke and R. Amick, The Struggle for Significance (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Glenсое Press, 1975), p. 143.

 

 

18. W. B. Yeats, cited in R. Hepburn, “Questions about the Meaning of Life”, Religious Studies (1965) 1:125—40.

 

 

19. Hepburn, “Questions”.

 

 

20. B. Rajneesh, cited in B. Gunther, Dying for Enlightenment (New York: Harper &: Row, 1979).

 

 

21. V. Frankl, “Fragments from the Logotherapeutic Treatment of Four Cases”, in Modern Psychotherapeutic Practice, ed. A. Burton (Palo Alto, Calif.: Science and Behavior Books, 1965), pp. 365—67.

 

 

22. Personal communication, 1970.

 

 

23. V. Frankl, Man’s Search, pp. 143—44.

 

 

24. Ibid., pp. 368—70.

 

 

25. Т. Zuehlke and J. Watkins, “The Use of Logotherapy with Dying Patients: An Exploratory Study”, Journal of Clinical Psychology (1975) 31:729—32.

 

 

26. С. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections (New York: Pantheon Books, 1961), pp. 139—40.

 

 

27. P. Koestenbaum, Is There an Answer to Death (Englewood Cliffs, N. ].: Prentice-Hall, 1976), p. 81.

 

 

28. A. Ungersma, The Search for Meaning (Philadelphia: Westminister Press, 1961), p. 27f.; J. Fabry, The Pursuit of Meaning (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969); and J. Crumbaugh, Everything to Gain (Chicago: Nelson Hall, 1973).

 

 

29. V. Frankl, The Doctor and the Soul (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), pp. 221—53.

 

 

30. M. Erickson, “The Use of Symptoms as an Integral Part of Hypnotherapy”, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis (1965) 8:57—65; J. Haley, Uncommon Therapy: The Psychiatric Techniques of Milton Erickson (New York: W. W. Norton, 1973); and P. Watzlawick, J. Beavin, and D. Jackson. Pragmatics of Human Communication (New York: W. W. Norton, 1967).

 

 

31. J. Crumbaugh, “Frankl’s Logotherapy: A New Orientation in Counseling”, Journal of Religion and Health (1970) 10:373—86.

 

 

32. D. Follesdal, oral communication, 1979.

 

 

33. Т. Nagel, Mortal Questions (London: Cambridge University Press, 1979), p. 21.

 

 

34. К. Bach, Exit-Existentialism: A Philosophy of Self-Awareness (Belmont, Calif.: Wads-worth, 1973), p. 6.

 

 

35. A. Schopenhauer, cited in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. IV, ed. P. Edwards, et al. (New York: Macmillan, 1967), p. 468.

 

 

36. Nagel, Mortal Questions, p. 22.

 

 

37. Bach, Exit-Existentialism, p. 7.

 

 

38. Hume, cited in Nagel, Mortal Questions, p. 20.

 

 

39. Tolstoy, My Confession, p. 16.

 

 

40. L. Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, trans. D. Pears and B. McGuinness (London and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961), p. 73.

 
 
Ко входу в Библиотеку Якова Кротова